European Credit Transfer System (Cro. ECTS-bod) is a measuring unit to express the scope of the acquired competences, and it is determined through the total time spent, needed to acquire them.
National Qualifications Framework – NQF (Cro. Nacionalni kvalifikacijski okvir) is an instrument of establishing the qualifications acquired in a certain country which provide the basics for the transparency, access, progression, acquisition and quality of qualifications. Example: CROQF – Croatian Qualifications Framework (HKO – Hrvatski kvalifikacijski okvir).
European Qualifications Framework -EQF (Cro. Europski kvalifikacijski okvir) is an instrument of establishing the levels of qualifications organized so as to act as a means of recognition and understanding of qualifications among national (and sectoral) qualification frames.
Learning outcomes (Cro. Ishodi (rezultati) učenja) describe what the student needs to know, understand and can be able to do after having successfully completed the learning process. These are related to measurable level descriptors in national and European qualification frames.
Competences (Cro. Kompetencije) indicate a set of skills, knowledge and a set of competences in a narrower sense.
Competences (Cro. Kompetencije u užem smislu) indicate the achieved application of concrete knowledge and skills, in compliance with the given standards. In CQF the competences in the narrower sense refer to the independence and responsibility.
Qualification (Cro. Kvalifikacija) is a formal name for a certain level, scope, profile and quality of competences, which is proven by a public document issued by the competent institution.
Quality of Qualification (Cro. Kvaliteta kvalifikacije) indicates the confidence in the reported level, volume and profile of the acquired competences. Example: management system of introducing single qualifications, performing the study programme, evaluation and grading of the acquired competences and successful application of qualifications in personal, social and professional needs.
Level Indicators/Descriptors (Cro. Mjerljivi pokazatelji razina) are descriptions of learning outcomes of a certain level.
Named Award (Cro. Naziv kvalifikacije) indicates the type of qualification with precise designation of profession or field of work acquired by a certain person. Example: baccalaureus/a of civil engineering.
Volume of Qualification (Cro. Obujam kvalifikacije) indicates the total quantity of acquired competences, and in higher education it is expressed with ECTS credits. Example: 180 ECTS.
Profile of Qualification (Cro. Profil kvalifikacije) indicates profession or field of work of the acquired competences. Example: tourism.
Student workload (Cro. Radno opterećenje) describes the quantity of time needed by the students on the average to carry out all the obligations related to classes and studying (such as lectures, seminars, projects, practical work, preparation for classes, independent study, exams, etc.), which are necessary in order to achieve the expected learning outcomes.
Reference Levels (Cro. Razine kvalifikacija) indicate the complexity and range of the acquired competences, and are described by a set of measurable indicators. Example: 6th level of the Croatian qualification framework.
Skills (Cro. Vještine) encompass the application of knowledge and use of the stipulated methods of work in performing the assignments and solving of problems. In CQF the skills refer to cognitive (logical, intuitive and creative thinking), psycho-motoric (physical dexterity and implementation of methods, instruments, tools and materials) and/or social skills.
Award-type (Cro. Vrsta kvalifikacija) indicates a set of qualifications independent of the profession or field of work. Example: baccalaureus / -a.
Knowledge (Cro. Znanje) indicates a set of acquired and related information. In the Croatian qualification framework (CQF) knowledge refers to factual and theoretical knowledge.
Bologna Process (Cro. Bolonjski proces) is an instrument of establishing and homogenization of qualifications in the higher education system acquired in the European countries which provide bases for the transparency, access, progression, acquisition and quality of qualifications.
Lifelong Learning (LLL) (Cro. Cjeloživotno učenje) indicates the activities of formal, non-formal and informal learning which are performed during lifetime with the aim of improving the knowledge, skills and competences in the narrower sense for personal, social and professional needs.
Formal Learning (Cro. Formalno učenje) indicates the activity of the accredited institution performed according to the approved programmes with the aim of improving the knowledge, skills, and competences in the narrower sense for personal, social and professional needs. Example: activities of undergraduate study of biology.
Nonformal Learning (Cro. Neformalno učenje) indicates organized activities of learning which are not formal learning, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competences in the narrower sense for personal, social, and professional needs. Example: learning of foreign languages without issuing a public document of the authorized institution.
Informal Learning (Cro. Informalno učenje) indicates non-organized activities of accepting knowledge, skills and competences in the narrower sense from everyday experiences and other influences and sources from the environment for personal, social and professional needs. Example: unknowingly accepting positive values during a discussion within a group.
European Credit Transfer System ECTS is a student-oriented system of collecting and transferring credits. The aim is to facilitate planning, implementing, evaluation, recognition, and assessment of qualifications and learning units, as well as student mobility.
ECTS credits are assigned to the subjects and other study obligations of the students based on the workload carried by certain study obligations.
ECTS credits are based on the workload required of the students in order to achieve the expected learning outcomes.
Learning outcomes describe what the student needs to know, understand and be able to do after having successfully completed the learning process. They are related to the measurable level indicators (level descriptors) in national and European qualification frames.
Workload describes the quantity of time required by the students on the average to perform all the obligations related to classes and learning (such as lectures, seminars, projects, practical work, preparation for classes, independent learning, exams, etc.), which are necessary in order to achieve the learning outcomes. In order to assess the workload of the students, it is useful to carry out surveys about how much time the students need to acquire the expected outcomes.
The amount of the student workload in the formal context of learning in one semester is 30 ECTS credits. In the majority of cases the workload of the full-time student in one year amounts from 1,500 to 1,800 hours and therefore one ECTS is from 25 to 30 hours of work. The amount of workload is usually first assessed by the teacher, and after that it is evaluated based on a survey among the students who are passing through a certain programme and on the basis of learning logbooks kept by some students.
ECTS credits are assigned upon the completion of all the course obligations at the study or study components (lecture, seminar or exercise), and after having successfully carried out the analyses of learning outcomes. This means that it is not possible to assign ECTS credits for partly fulfilled obligations in a subject, seminar or exercise.
ECTS credits acquired at a study programme can be transferred to another study programme at the same or another higher education institution. The precondition for this transfer is for the higher education institution to recognize the ECTS credits and learning outcomes from another higher education institution. The higher education institutions as a rule need to agree in advance and publish the conditions on recognizing ECTS credits so that the students know which obligations exactly will be recognized.
ECTS credits per se describe the very student workload in a certain subject or course. Without insight into the study programme, ECTS credits do not describe the learning outcomes and student competences. Consequently, the possibility of transferring ECTS credits which has been provided for in the Act on the scientific activity and higher education, in Article 75, Item 1, serves to transfer the quantity of realized work at the study, and not to describe the learning outcomes and student competences. It is precisely for this reason that Item 2 of the mentioned Article determines that the criteria and conditions of transferring ECTS credits shall be defined by enactments of higher education institutions. Example: student workload during the semester for a subject.
|Student activity||Number of working hours of an average student|
|Lectures and exercises||60|
|3 monthly quizzes in learning||40|
|Preparation for classes||15|
|Weekly problem assignments, teamwork and presentations||30|
|Essay on a given topic and presentation||15|
|Other (demonstrations, assignments, etc.)||30|
What is diploma supplement?
Diploma supplement is a document which is enclosed with the diploma in higher education institution, and provides clear and simple overview of the knowledge, skills and capabilities, in one word – competences, acquired by the student during the study. Its general format has been jointly defined by the European Commission. The European Council and UNESCO CEPES, with the implementation of the Regulations on the contents of the Diploma and Diploma supplements (OG 09/05 and NN 47/07).
What data are included in the diploma supplement?
- Data on the diploma holder;
- Data on acquired qualification;
- Data on qualification level;
- Data on contents and results of the acquired qualification;
- Data about the employment possibilities i.e. inclusion in further study programmes;
- Additional information (source indication);
- Certification of diploma supplement;
- Data on higher education system in the Republic of Croatia.
What does Diploma supplement bring to the students?
It provides precise and objective description of the student academic career and competences they had acquired at the study and they are offered a simpler access to the labour market, as well as easier continuation of the study in Croatia and abroad.0
What the Diploma supplement is not?
It does not substitute the Diploma or Certificate, i.e. transcript of grades, nor does it ensure automatic recognition of the Croatian higher education qualification abroad. It is always issued as an annex to the Diploma, i.e. Certificate.
Where can one see the samples of Diploma supplement?
Which types of mobility exist within the Bologna process?
- Attending and taking elective subjects within the higher education institution;
- Attending and taking exams in subjects at other faculties within the university;
- Performing a certain part of the study at another higher education institution;
- Completion of the study at one higher education institution and enrolment in another higher education institution.
What mobility is not?
Mobility does not plan signing out of one faculty and continuation of the study by enrolling in another!