ECTS credits: 7
Lectures: 2
Exercises: 5

Course objective:

Introduce the students to basic refraction procedures and develop their monocular refraction skills.

Course contents:

Basic concepts and definitions. Visual acuity, contrast, optotypes. Accommodation. Curves of visual acuity. Ametropic eye - nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism. Visual acuity and ametropia. Subjective refraction - bestform lenses and cross cylinder methods. Subjective refraction - fogging method. Vertex and cylindrical effects conversion. Objective refraction - electronic refractometry, skiascopy, ophthalmoscopy, ophthalmometry.


Gaining the competence of independent visual acuity (visus) estimating, capability of converting it for the purpose of visus plate construction, capability of determining the spherical and astigmatic correction values according to the objective and subjective principles.

Learning outcomes:

Having passed the exam, students will be able to: 1. Assess the client's visual acuity. 2. Describe the client's contrast. 3. Distinguish refractive errors of the eye (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism). 4. Test the client's astigmatic error with the fogging and cross cylinder method. 5. Use skiascopy. 6. Create visual acuity curve. The aforementioned learning outcomes contribute to the learning outcomes of the study programme: - Explain the working principles for the optical elements of physical optics - Explain the basic functions and anatomy of the eye in relation to the entire human body - Suggest an appropriate sight testing plan for the client, based on their anamnesis and previous testing